segunda-feira, 16 de maio de 2011



Announcement of the results of theentrance examinations to the University of Tokyo
Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration.  Since 1947, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and middle school , which together last for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school , and, according to the MEXT , as of 2005 about 75.9 percent of high school graduates attend a university, junior college, trade school, or other higher educationinstitution.  The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University .  The Programme for International Student Assessmentcoordinated by the OECD currently ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as sixth best in the world. 


In Japan, health care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. As pessoas sem seguro através dos empregadores podem participar de um programa nacional de seguro de saúde administrado pelos governos locais. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.  Patients are free to select the physicians or facilities of their choice. 


Kinkaku-ji , ou 'O Templo do Pavilhão Dourado ", em Kyoto , Especial Sítio Histórico, lugar especial de beleza cênica , e Patrimônio Mundial da UNESCO, sua incendiando por um monge em 1950 é o tema de umromance de Mishima
Japanese culture has evolved greatly from its origins. Contemporary culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Japanese arts includecrafts such as ceramics , textiles , lacquerware , swords and dolls ; performances of bunraku , kabuki , noh , dance , and rakugo ; and other practices, the tea ceremony ,ikebana , martial arts , calligraphy , origami , onsen , Geisha and games . Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangibleCultural Properties and National Treasures . Fourteen sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.


The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture. Largely of wood, traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatamimats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space.  Japanese sculpture , largely of wood, and Japanese painting are among the oldest of the Japanese arts, with early figurative paintings dating back to at least 300 BC. The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas. The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism , had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism .Famous ukiyo-e artists include Hokusai and Hiroshige . The fusion of traditional woodblock printing and Western art led to the creation ofmanga , a comic book format that is now popular within and outside Japan. Manga-influenced animation for television and film is called anime . Japanese-made video game consoles have been popular since the 1980s. 


Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. Many instruments , such as the koto , were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries. The accompanied recitative of the Noh drama dates from the 14th century and the popular folk music , with the guitar-like shamisen , from the sixteenth. Western classical music , introduced in the late 19th century, now forms an integral part of Japanese culture. The imperial court ensemble Gagaku has influenced the work of some modern Western composers.  Notable classical composers from Japan include Toru Takemitsu and Rentaro Taki . A música popular no Japão pós-guerra foi fortemente influenciado por tendências americanas e européias, o que levou à evolução da J-pop ou música popular japonesa.  Karaoke é amplamente praticada a atividade cultural a maioria no Japão. Uma pesquisa de 1993 pela Agência de Assuntos Culturais descobriu que mais tinha cantado em japonês karaokê que ano que participaram em atividades tradicionais, como arranjos florais do ikebana) ou cerimônias de chá. 


The earliest works of Japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man'yōshū poetry anthology , all from the eighth century and written in Chinese characters.  In the early Heian period, the system of phonograms known as kana ( Hiragana and Katakana ) was developed. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest Japanese narrative. An account of Heian court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon , while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the world's first novel. 
During the Edo period, the chōnin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. A popularidade das obras de Saikaku , por exemplo, revela essa mudança de leitura e autoria, enquanto Basho revivida a tradição poética do Kokinshu com seu haikai ( haiku ) e escreveu o diário de viagem poéticaOku no Hosomichi . A Era Meiji viu o declínio das formas literárias tradicionais como a literatura japonesa de influências ocidentais. Natsume Soseki e Mori Ōgai foram os primeiros romancistas modernos do Japão, seguido por Ryūnosuke Akutagawa , Jun'ichiro Tanizaki , Yasunari Kawabata , Yukio Mishima e, mais recentemente, Haruki Murakami . Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors— Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburo Oe (1994). 
Breakfast at a ryokan or inn


The primary staple is Japanese rice . In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats that had previously not been widely used in Japan were introduced. Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. The Michelin Guide has awarded Japanese cities more Michelin stars than the rest of the world combined.


Sumo wrestlers form around the referee during the ring-entering ceremony
Traditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport.  Japanese martial arts such as judo , karate and kendo are also widely practiced and enjoyed by spectators in the country. After the Meiji Restoration, many Western sports were introduced in Japan and began to spread through the education system.  Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 . Japan has hosted the Winter Olympics twice: Nagano in 1998 and Sapporo in 1972 . 
The Japanese professional baseball league was established in 1936. Today baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. Since the establishment of theJapan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has also gained a wide following. Japan was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004 and co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea.  Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times. Golf is also popular in Japan, as are forms of auto racing like the Super GT series and Formula Nippon . 

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