A crença religiosa dominante durante a dinastia Ming foram as misturas tradicionais de culto aos ancestrais , taoísmo e budismo . The Chinese believed in a host of deities in what may be termed Chinese folk religion .
The late Ming period saw the first arrival of Jesuit missionaries from Europe such as Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault . There were also other denominations including the Dominicans and Franciscans .
Ricci worked with the Chinese mathematician, astronomer, and agronomist Xu Guangqi to translate the Greek mathematical work Euclid's Elements into Chinese for the first time in 1607. Os chineses ficaram impressionados com os conhecimentos de astronomia, ciência de calendário, a matemática, hidráulica e geografia. Most European monks presented themselves more as educated elites than religious figures, in an effort to gain trust and admiration from the Chinese. However, most Chinese were suspicious and even outright critical of Christianity due to Chinese beliefs and practices that did not coincide with the Christian faith. The highpoint of this contention was the Nanjing Religious Incident of 1616–22, a temporary triumph of the Confucian traditionalists when Western missionaries and science were rejected in favor of the belief that Western science derived from a superior Chinese model; this was soon rejected in favor of once again staffing the Imperial Astronomical Board with Western missionaries learned in science.
Besides Christianity, the Kaifeng Jews had a long history in China; Ricci discovered this when he was contacted by one of them in Beijing and learned of their history in China . Islam in China had existed since the early 7th century during the Tang Dynasty ; during the Ming Dynasty there were several prominent figures—including Zheng He —who was Muslim. O imperador Hongwu empregado também comandantes muçulmanos em seu exército, como Chang Yuqun, Yu Lan , Dexing Ding, e Ying Mu .
Yangming do Confucionismo Wang
Durante a dinastia Ming, as doutrinas da Dinastia Song acadêmico e funcionário Zhu Xi (1130-1200) e Neo-Confucionismo foram abraçados pelo tribunal e os letrados chineses em geral. No entanto, a conformidade total a um único modo de pensamento nunca foi uma realidade na esfera intelectual da sociedade. Havia alguns na Ming, que-como Su Shi(1037-1101) da Canção foram rebeldes no coração e não foram envergonhados para criticar a dogmática modos tradicionais de pensamento. Leading a new strand of Confucian teaching and philosophy was the scholar-official Wang Yangming (1472–1529), whose critics said that his teachings were contaminated by Chan Buddhism .
Na análise do conceito de Zhu Xi da "extensão do conhecimento" (isto é, sua compreensão por meio racional e cuidadosa investigação das coisas e eventos; chinês:理学ou格物致知), Wang percebeu que os princípios universais eram conceitos defendidos nas mentes de todos. Quebrando a partir do molde, Wang disse que qualquer pessoa, não importa o status socioeconômico ou de fundo, poderia se tornar tão sábio quanto os antigos sábios Confúcio e Mêncio , e que os escritos dos dois últimos não foram a fonte da verdade, mas apenas guias que poderia ter falhas se analisado cuidadosamente. Em sua mente Wang, um camponês que teve muitas experiências e chamou verdades naturais destes era mais sábio do que um funcionário que estudou cuidadosamente os clássicos, mas não tinha experiência no mundo real a fim de observar o que era verdade.
Conservative Confucian officials were wary of Wang's philosophical interpretation of the Confucian classics , the increasing number of his disciples while still in office, and his overall socially rebellious message. To curb his political influence he was often sent out to deal with military affairs and rebellions far away from the capital. Yet his ideas penetrated mainstream Chinese thought, and spurred new interest in Daoism and Buddhism. Furthermore, people began to question the validity of the social hierarchy and the idea that the scholar was above the farmer. Wang Yangming's disciple and salt-mine worker Wang Gen gave lectures to commoners about pursuing education to improve their lives, while his follower He Xinyin 何心隱 challenged the elevation and emphasis of the family in Chinese society. His contemporary Li Zhi李贄 (1527–1602) even taught that women were the intellectual equals of men and should be given a better education; both Li and He eventually died in prison, jailed on charges of spreading "dangerous ideas". Yet these "dangerous ideas" of educating women had long been embraced with mothers giving their children primary education, as well as courtesans who were as literate and similarly trained in calligraphy, painting, and poetry as their male hosts.
In opposition to the liberal views of Wang Yangming were the conservative officials in the censorate—a governmental institution with the right and responsibility to speak out against malfeasance and abuse of power—and the senior officials of the Donglin Academy , which was reestablished in 1604. These conservatives wanted a revival of orthodox Confucian ethics. Conservatives such as Gu Xiancheng (1550–1612) argued against Wang Yangming's idea of innate moral knowledge, stating that this was simply a legitimization for unscrupulous behavior such as greedy pursuits and personal gain. These two strands of Confucian thought created factionalism amongst ministers of state, who— like the old days of Wang Anshi and Sima Guang in the Song Dynasty—used any opportunity to impeach members of the other faction from court.
Urban and rural life
Wang Gen foi capaz de dar aulas filosóficas a muitos cidadãos comuns de diferentes regiões, pois, seguindo a tendência já patente na dinastia Song Ming-comunidades na sociedade foram se tornando menos isolados, como a distância entre as cidades de mercado estava encolhendo. , Grupos de descendência escolas, associações religiosas e outras organizações voluntárias locais foram crescendo em número e permitindo um maior contacto entre os homens educados e moradores locais. Jonathan Spence , escreve que a distinção entre o que foi a cidade eo campo estava borrado Ming na China, desde áreas suburbanas com as fazendas foram localizados nos arredores e em alguns casos, dentro das muralhas da cidade. Não só foi a indefinição da cidade e do país evidente, mas também da classe socioeconômica no tradicional quatro ocupações (em chinês: 士 农工商), uma vez que os artesãos, por vezes, trabalhavam em fazendas nos períodos de pico e fazendeiros freqüentemente viajava para a cidade para encontrar trabalho em períodos de escassez .
Uma variedade de profissões poderiam ser escolhidas ou herdadas de uma linha de trabalho do pai. This would include—but was not limited to—coffinmakers, ironworkers and blacksmiths, tailors, cooks and noodle-makers, retail merchants, tavern, teahouse, or winehouse managers, shoemakers, seal cutters, pawnshop owners, brothel heads, and merchant bankers engaging in a proto-banking system involving notes of exchange. Virtually every town had a brothel where female and male prostitutes could be had. Male catamites fetched a higher price than female concubines since pederasty with a teenage boy was seen as a mark of elite status, regardless of sodomy being repugnant to sexual norms. Public bathing became much more common than in earlier periods. Urban shops and retailers sold a variety of goods such as special paper money to burn at ancestral sacrifices, specialized luxury goods, headgear, fine cloth, teas, and others. Smaller communities and townships too poor or scattered to support shops and artisans obtained their goods from periodic market fairs and traveling peddlers. A small township also provided a place for simple schooling, news and gossip, matchmaking, religious festivals, traveling theater groups, tax collection, and bases of famine relief distribution.
Farming villagers in the north spent their days harvesting crops like wheat and millet, while farmers south of the Huai River engaged in intensive rice cultivation and had lakes and ponds where ducks and fish could be raised. The cultivation of mulberry trees for silkworms and tea bushes could be found mostly south of the Yangzi River ; even further south of this sugarcane and citrus were grown as basic crops. Some people in the mountainous southwest made a living by selling lumber from hard bamboo. Além de cortar árvores para vender a madeira, os pobres também fez viver uma por transformação de madeira em carvão, a queima de ostras conchas para fazercal , potes demitido, e teciam esteiras e cestas. No norte de viajar a cavalo e de transporte, foi mais comum , enquanto no Sul a miríade de rios, canais e lagos de água desde o transporte fácil e barato. Although the south had the characteristic of the wealthy landlord and tenant farmers, there were on average many more owner-cultivators north of the Huai River due to harsher climate, living not far above subsistence level.
Science and technology
Compared to the flourishing of science and technology in the Song Dynasty , the Ming Dynasty perhaps saw fewer advancements in science and technology compared to the pace of discovery in the Western world . De fato, importantes avanços na ciência chinesa no Ming foram estimulados pelo contato com a Europa. Em 1626 , Johann Adam Schall von Bell , escreveu o primeiro tratado chinês sobre o telescópio , o Yuanjingshuo (Far Vendo óptica de vidro), em 1634 o último Ming imperador Chongzhenadquirido o telescópio do falecido Johann Schreck (1576-630). A heliocêntrica modelo do sistema solar foi rejeitada pelos missionários católicos na China, masJohannes Kepler e Galileu Galilei ideias s 'escorreu lentamente para a China a partir do jesuíta polonês Michael Boym (1612-1659) em 1627, Schall von Bell tratado Adam em 1640 e, finalmente, Joseph Edkins , Alex Wylie , e John Fryer no século 19. jesuítas Católica na China vai promover copernicana na teoria do tribunal, mas, ao mesmo tempo abraçar o ptolomaico sistema em sua escrita, não foi até 1865 que missionários católicos na China patrocinou o modelo heliocêntrico como seus colegas protestantes fizeram. Embora Shen Kuo (1031-1095) e Shoujing Guo (1231-316) tinha estabelecido a base para a trigonometria na China, outro importante trabalho de trigonometria chinesa não ser publicado até 1607 com os esforços de Xu Guangqi e Matteo Ricci. Ironicamente, algumas invenções que tiveram suas origens na antiga China foram reintroduzidos para a China da Europa durante o Ming, por exemplo, o moinho de campo .
The Chinese calendar was in need of reform since it inadequately measured the solar year at 365 ¼ days, giving an error of 10 min and 14 sec a year or roughly a full day every 128 years. Although the Ming had adopted Guo Shoujing's Shoushi calendar of 1281, which was just as accurate as the Gregorian Calendar , the Ming Directorate of Astronomy failed to periodically readjust it; this was perhaps due to their lack of expertise since their offices had become hereditary in the Ming and the Statutes of the Ming prohibited private involvement in astronomy. A sixth-generation descendant of Emperor Hongxi, the "Prince" Zhu Zaiyu (1536–611), submitted a proposal to fix the calendar in 1595, but the ultra-conservative astronomical commission rejected it. This was the same Zhu Zaiyu who discovered the system of tuning known as equal temperament , a discovery made simultaneously by Simon Stevin (1548–1620) in Europe. In addition to publishing his works on music, he was able to publish his findings on the calendar in 1597. A year earlier, the memorial of Xing Yunlu suggesting a calendar improvement was rejected by the Supervisor of the Astronomical Bureau due to the law banning private practice of astronomy; Xing would later serve with Xu Guangqi in reforming the calendar (Chinese: 崇禎暦書) in 1629 according to Western standards.
When the Ming founder Hongwu came upon the mechanical devices housed in the Yuan Dynasty's palace at Khanbaliq — such as fountains with balls dancing on their jets, self-operating tiger automata , dragon-headed devices that spouted mists of perfume, and mechanical clocks in the tradition of Yi Xing (683–727) and Su Song (1020–101) — he associated all of them with the decadence of Mongol rule and had them destroyed. This was described in full length by the Divisional Director of the Ministry of Works, Xiao Xun, who also carefully preserved details on the architecture and layout of the Yuan Dynasty palace. Later, European Jesuits such as Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault would briefly mention indigenous Chinese clockworks that featured drive wheels. However, both Ricci and Trigault were quick to point out that 16th century European clockworks were far more advanced than the common time keeping devices in China, which they listed as water clocks , incense clocks , and "other instruments... with wheels rotated by sand as if by water" (Chinese: 沙漏). Chinese records — namely the Yuan Shi (Chinese: 元史) — describe the 'five-wheeled sand clock', a mechanism pioneered by Zhan Xiyuan ( fl. 1360–80) which featured the scoop wheel of Su Song's earlier astronomical clock and a stationary dial face over which a pointer circulated, similar to European models of the time. This sand-driven wheel clock was improved upon by Zhou Shuxue (fl. 1530–58) who added a fourth large gear wheel, changed gear ratios, and widened the orifice for collecting sand grains since he criticized the earlier model for clogging up too often.
Os chineses ficaram intrigados com tecnologia européia, mas também estavam visitando europeus de tecnologia chinesa. In 1584, Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598) featured in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum the peculiar Chinese innovation of mounting masts and sails onto carriages , just like Chinese ships . ] Gonzales de Mendoza also mentioned this a year later — noting even the designs of them on Chinese silken robes — while Gerardus Mercator (1512–94) featured them in his atlas, John Milton (1608–74) in one of his famous poems, and Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1739–801) in the writings of his travel diary in China.
The encyclopedist Song Yingxing (1587–666) documented a wide array of technologies, metallurgic and industrial processes in his Tiangong Kaiwu (Chinese: 天工開物) encyclopedia of 1637. Isto inclui dispositivos mecânicos e hidráulicos movidos para a agricultura e irrigação, tecnologia náuticos, tais como tipo de embarcação e snorkelingartes para os mergulhadores de pérolas, os processos anuais de sericicultura e tecelagem com o tear , processos metalúrgicos, tais como o cadinho técnica e têmpera , processos de fabricação como para o ferro torra pirita na conversão de sulfeto de óxido de enxofre, usados em composições de pólvora - que ilustra como o minério foi empilhado para cima com briquetes de carvão em um forno de barro com um ainda -cabeça que enviou mais de enxofre como o vapor que se solidificam e cristalizam- e o uso de armas de pólvora, como uma mina naval inflamado pelo uso de um cabo-rip e rodas de aço de pedra . [
Focusing on agriculture in his Nongzheng Quanshu , the agronomist Xu Guangqi (1562–1633) took an interest in irrigation, fertilizers, famine relief, economic and textile crops, and empirical observation of the elements that gave insight into early understandings of chemistry.
There were many advances and new designs in gunpowder weapons during the beginning of the dynasty, but by the mid to late Ming the Chinese began to frequently employ European-style artillery and firearms. The Huolongjing , compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Ji sometime before the latter's death on May 16, 1375 (with a preface added by Jiao in 1412), featured many types of cutting-edge gunpowder weaponry for the time. Isso inclui oco, cheio de pólvora de canhão explodir , minas terrestres que usou um mecanismo de gatilho complexo de pesos em queda, pinos, e um wheellock aço para inflamar o trem de fusíveis, minas navais, fin-montado mísseis alados deaerodinâmica , controlo foguetes de múltiplos estágios impulsionado por foguetes propulsores antes de acender um enxame de pequenos foguetes que emite luz a partir do final do míssil (em forma de dragão, cabeça de um), e mão canhões que tinham até dez barris .
Li Shizhen (1518–93) — one of the most renowned pharmacologists and physicians in Chinese history — belonged to the late Ming period. Em 1587, ele completou o primeiro esboço de seu Bencao Gangmu , que indicava o uso de mais de 1.800 medicamentos. Although it purportedly was invented by a Daoist hermit from Mount Emei in the late 10th century, the process of inoculation for smallpox patients was in widespread use in China by the reign of the Longqing Emperor (r. 1567–72), long before it was applied anywhere else. In regards to oral hygiene , the ancient Egyptians had a primitive toothbrush of a twig frayed at the end, but the Chinese were the first to invent the modern bristle toothbrush in 1498, although it used stiff pig hair.
sinólogo historiadores ainda debatem os números da população real de cada época da dinastia Ming. O historiador Timothy Brook observa que o censo números do governo Ming são duvidosos já que as obrigações fiscais levou muitas famílias a subnotificação do número de pessoas em suas residências e muitas autoridades do condado de subnotificação do número de famílias, na sua jurisdição. As crianças muitas vezes eram subnotificados, especialmente as crianças do sexo feminino, como mostrado pelas estatísticas de população distorcida ao longo do Ming. Mesmo mulheres adultas eram subnotificados, , por exemplo, a Prefeitura de Daming no Norte Zhili relatou uma população de 378 167 homens e 226 982 mulheres em 1502. O governo tentou revisar o censo de figuras usando estimativas do número médio esperado de pessoas em cada agregado familiar, mas isso não resolve o problema generalizado de registro fiscal.
The number of people counted in the census of 1381 was 59 873 305; however, this number dropped significantly when the government found that some 3 million people were missing from the tax census of 1391. Even though underreporting figures was made a capital crime in 1381, the need for survival pushed many to abandon the tax registration and wander from their region, where Hongwu had attempted to impose rigid immobility on the populace. The government tried to mitigate this by creating their own conservative estimate of 60 545 812 people in 1393. In his Studies on the Population of China , Ho Ping-ti suggests revising the 1393 census to 65 million people, noting that large areas of North China and frontier areas were not counted in that census. Brook states that the population figures gathered in the official censuses after 1393 ranged between 51 and 62 million, while the population was in fact increasing. Even the Hongzhi Emperor (r. 1487-505) remarked that the daily increase in subjects coincided with the daily dwindling amount of registered civilians and soldiers. William Atwell states that around 1400 the population of China was perhaps 90 million people, citing Heijdra and Mote.
Historians are now turning to local gazetteers of Ming China for clues that would show consistent growth in population. Using the gazetteers, Brook estimates that the overall population under the Chenghua Emperor (r. 1464–1487) was roughly 75 million, despite mid-Ming census figures hovering around 62 million. While prefectures across the empire in the mid-Ming period were reporting either a drop in or stagnant population size, local gazetteers reported massive amounts of incoming vagrant workers with not enough good cultivated land for them to till, so that many would become drifters, conmen, or wood-cutters that contributed to deforestation.The Hongzhi and Zhengde emperors lessened the penalties against those who had fled their home region, while the Jiajing Emperor (r. 1521–67) finally had officials register migrants wherever they had moved or fled in order to bring in more revenues.
Even with Jiajing's reforms to document migrant workers and merchants, by the late Ming era the government census still did not accurately reflect the enormous growth in population. Gazetteers across the empire noted this and made their own estimations of the overall population in the Ming, some guessing that the population had doubled, tripled, or even grown fivefold since 1368. Fairbank estimates that the population was perhaps 160 million in the late Ming Dynasty, while Brook estimates 175 million, and Ebrey states perhaps as large as 200 million. However, a great epidemic that entered China through the northwest in 1641 ravaged the densely populated areas along the Grand Canal; a gazetteer in northern Zhejiang noted more than half the population fell ill that year and that 90% of the local populace in one area was dead by 1642.
- 1421 Hypothesis
- Economia da Dinastia Ming
- Kaifeng flood of 1642
- Kingdom of Tungning
- List of tributaries of Imperial China
- Luchuan-Pingmian Campaigns
- Ming Dynasty family tree
- Ming Dynasty military conquests
- Ming official headwear
- Taxation in premodern China
- Ye Chunji (for further information on rural economics in the Ming)
- Zheng Zhilong