sábado, 21 de maio de 2011


Battle of Mukden

The Battle of Mukden commenced on 20 February 1905. In the following days Japanese forces proceeded to assault the right and left flanks of Russian forces surrounding Mukden, along a 50-mile (80 km) front. Both sides were well entrenched and were backed by hundreds of artillery pieces. After days of harsh fighting, added pressure from the flanks forced both ends of the Russian defensive line to curve backwards. Seeing they were about to be encircled, the Russians began a general retreat, fighting a series of fierce rearguard actions, which soon deteriorated in the confusion and collapse of Russian forces. On 10 March 1905 after three weeks of fighting, General Kuropatkin decided to withdraw to the north of Mukden.
The retreating Russian Manchurian Army formations disbanded as fighting units, but the Japanese failed to destroy them completely. The Japanese themselves had suffered large casualties and were in no condition to pursue. Although the battle of Mukden was a major defeat for the Russians it was not decisive, and the final victory still depended on the navy.

Battle of Tsushima

Japanese battleship Mikasa , the flagship of Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō at the Battle of Tsushima .
The Russian Second Pacific Squadron (the renamed Baltic Fleet) sailed 18,000 nautical miles (33,000 km) to relieve Port Arthur. The demoralizing news that Port Arthur had fallen reached the fleet while at Madagascar . Admiral Rozhestvensky's only hope now was to reach the port of Vladivostok . There were three routes to Vladivostok, with the shortest and most direct passing through Tsushima Straits between Korea and Japan. However, this was also the most dangerous route as it passed very close to the Japanese home islands.
Admiral Togo was aware of Russian progress and understood that with the fall of Port Arthur, the Second and Third Pacific Squadrons would try to reach the only other Russian port in the Far East, Vladivostok. Battle plans were laid down and ships were repaired and refitted to intercept the Russian fleet.
The Japanese Combined Fleet , which had originally consisted of six battleships, was now down to four (two had been lost to mines), but still retained its cruisers, destroyers, and torpedo boats. The Russian Second Pacific Squadron contained eight battleships, including four new battleships of the Borodino class , as well as cruisers, destroyers and other auxiliaries for a total of 38 ships.
By the end of May the Second Pacific Squadron was on the last leg of its journey to Vladivostok, taking the shorter, riskier route between Korea and Japan, and travelling at night to avoid discovery. Unfortunately for the Russians, while in compliance with the rules of war , the two trailing hospital ships had continued to burn their lights, which were spotted by the Japanese armed merchant cruiser Shinano Maru . Wireless communication was used to inform Togo's headquarters, where the Combined Fleet was immediately ordered to sortie. Still receiving naval intelligence from scouting forces, the Japanese were able to position their fleet so that they would " cross the T "  of the Russian fleet. The Japanese engaged battle in the Tsushima Straits on 27–28 May 1905. The Russian fleet was virtually annihilated, losing eight battleships, numerous smaller vessels, and more than 5,000 men, while the Japanese lost three torpedo boats and 116 men. Only three Russian vessels escaped to Vladivostok. After the Battle of Tsushima, the Japanese army occupied the entire chain of the Sakhalin Islands to force the Russians to sue for peace .

Military attachés and observers

Japanese General Kuroki and his staff, including foreign officers and war correspondents after the Battle of Shaho(1904).
Observadores militares e civis de cada grande potência acompanhou de perto o curso da guerra. Most were able to report on events from the perspective of " embedded " positions within the land and naval forces of both Russia and Japan. These military attachés and other observers prepared first-hand accounts of the war and analytical papers. narrativas observador em profundidade da guerra e um foco mais estreito artigos de revistas profissionais foram escritas logo após a guerra, e estes relatórios pós-guerra conclusiva ilustrou a destruição do campo de batalha do conflito. This was the first time the tactics of entrenched positions for infantry defended with machine guns and artillery became vitally important, and both were dominant factors in World War I. Though entrenched positions were a significant part of both the Franco-Prussian War and the American Civil War due to the advent of breech loading rifles, the lessons learned regarding high casualty counts were not taken into account in World War I. From a 21st century perspective, it is now apparent that tactical lessons which were available to the observer nations were disregarded or not used in the preparations for war inEurope and during the course of World War I. 
In 1904–1905, Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton was the military attaché of the British Indian Army serving with the Japanese army in Manchuria . Amongst the several military attachés from Western countries, he was the first to arrive in Japan after the start of the war.  As the earliest, he would be recognized as the dean of multi-national attachés and observers in this conflict; but he was out-ranked by a soldier who would become a better known figure, British Field Marshal William Gustavus Nicholson, 1st Baron Nicholson , later to become Chief of the Imperial General Staff .

]Peace and aftermath

Treaty of Portsmouth

Negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). From left to right: the Russians at far side of table are Korostovetz, Nabokov, Witte , Rosen , Plancon; and the Japanese at near side of table are AdachiOchiai , Komura , Takahira , Sato . The large conference table is today preserved at the Museum Meiji Mura in Inuyama, Aichi Prefecture,Japan .
The defeats of the Russian Army and Navy shook Russian confidence. Throughout 1905, the Imperial Russian government was rocked by revolution . Tsar Nicholas IIelected to negotiate peace so he could concentrate on internal matters after the disaster of Bloody Sunday on January 22, 1905.
Japan-Russia Treaty of Peace, 5 September 1905.
American President Theodore Roosevelt offered to mediate, and earned a Nobel Peace Prize for his effort. Sergius Witteled the Russian delegation and Baron Komura , a graduate of Harvard , led the Japanese Delegation. The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed on September 5, 1905,  at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine . Witte became Russian Prime Minister the same year.
After courting the Japanese, Roosevelt decided to support the Tsar's refusal to pay indemnities, a move that policymakers in Tokyo interpreted as signifying that the United States had more than a passing interest in Asian affairs. Russia recognized Korea as part of the Japanese sphere of influence and agreed to evacuate Manchuria. Japan would annex Korea in 1910, with scant protest from other powers. 
Russia also signed over its 25-year leasehold rights to Port Arthur, including the naval base and the peninsula around it, and ceded the southern half of Sakhalin Island to Japan (to be regained by the USSR in 1952 under the Treaty of San Francisco following the Second World War , against the wishes of the majority of Japanese politicians).


A Japanese propaganda of the war:woodcut print showing Tsar Nicholas II waking from a nightmare of the battered and wounded Russian forces returning from battle. Artist Kobayashi Kiyochika , 1904 or 1905.
Sources do not agree on a precise number of deaths from the war because of lack of body counts for confirmation. The number of Japanese army dead in combat is put at around 47,000 with around 80,000 if disease is included. Estimates of Russian army dead range from around 40,000 to around 70,000 men. The total number of army dead is generally stated at around 130,000.  China suffered 20,000 civilian deaths, and financially the loss amounted to over 69 million taels worth of silver.
During many of the battles at sea, several thousand soldiers being transported by sea drowned after their ships went down. There were no agreed consensus about what to do with transported soldiers at sea, and as a result, many of the ships denied rescuing casualties that were left shipwrecked. This led to the creation of the second Geneva Convention in 1906, which gave protection and care for shipwrecked soldiers in armed conflict.

consequências políticas

Punch cartoon, 1905; A cartoon in the British press of the times illustrating Russia's loss of prestige after the nation's defeat. The hour-glass representing Russia's prestige running out.
This was the second major victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one after the Siege of Fort Zeelandia . Russia's defeat was met with shock both in the West and across the Far East. Japan's prestige rose greatly as it began to be considered a modern nation. Concurrently, Russia lost virtually its entire Pacific and Baltic fleets, and also much international esteem. This was particularly true in the eyes of Germany and Austria–Hungary before World War I. Russia was France andSerbia 's ally, and that loss of prestige had a significant effect on Germany's future when planning for war with France, and Austria–Hungary's war with Serbia. The war caused many nations to underestimate Russian military capabilities in World War I.
In the absence of Russian competition and with the distraction of European nations during World War I , combined with the Great Depression which followed, the Japanese military began its efforts to dominate China and the rest of Asia, which eventually led to the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War , theatres of World War II .

Revolution in Russia

Popular discontent in Russia after the war added more fuel to the already simmering Russian Revolution of 1905 , an event Nicholas II of Russia had hoped to avoid entirely by taking intransigent negotiating stances prior to coming to the table at all. Twelve years later, that discontent boiled over into the February Revolution of 1917. In Poland, which Russia partitioned in the late 18th century, and where Russian rule already caused two major uprisings , the population was so restless that an army of 250,000–300,000 – larger than the one facing the Japanese – had to be stationed to put down the unrest .  Notably, some political leaders of the Polish insurrection movement (in particular, Józef Piłsudski ) sent emissaries to Japan to collaborate on sabotage and intelligence gathering within the Russian Empire and even plan a Japanese-aided uprising. 
In Russia, the defeat of 1905 led in the short term to a reform of the Russian military that allowed it to face Germany in World War I. However, the revolts at home following the war planted the seeds that presaged the Russian Revolution of 1917 .

Effects on Japan

Although the war had ended in a victory for Japan, Japanese public opinion was shocked by the very restrained peace terms which were negotiated at the war's end. Widespread discontent spread through the populace upon the announcement of the treaty terms. Riots erupted in major cities in Japan. Two specific requirements, expected after such a costly victory, were especially lacking: territorial gains and monetary reparations to Japan. The peace accord led to feelings of distrust, as the Japanese had intended to retain all of Sakhalin Island , but were forced to settle for half of it after being pressured by the US

Assessment of war results

Russia had lost two of its three fleets. Only its Black Sea Fleet remained, and this was the result of an earlier treaty that had prevented the fleet from leaving the Black Sea. Japan became the sixth-most powerful naval force,  while the Russian navy declined to one barely stronger than that of Austria–Hungary. The actual costs of the war were large enough to affect the Russian economy and, despite grain exports, the nation developed an external balance of payments deficit. The cost of military re-equipment and re-expansion after 1905 pushed the economy further into deficit, although the size of the deficit was obscured. 
A lock of Admiral Nelson 's hair was given to the Imperial Japanese Navy by the British Royal Navy after the war to commemorate the victory of the Battle of Tsushima, which was considered on a par with Britain's victory at Trafalgar in 1805. It is still on display at Kyouiku Sankoukan, a public museum maintained by the Japan Self-Defense Force.
The Japanese were on the offensive for most of the war and used massed infantry assaults against defensive positions, which would become the standard of all European armies during World War I . The battles of the Russo-Japanese War in which machine guns and artillery took their toll on Japanese troops were a precursor to the trench warfare of World War I.  A German military advisor sent to Japan, Jakob Meckel , had a tremendous impact on the development of the Japanese military training, tactics, strategy and organization. His reforms were credited with Japan's overwhelming victory over China in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. However, his over-reliance on the use of infantry in offensive campaigns also led to the large number of Japanese casualties.
Military and economic exhaustion affected both countries. Japanese historians consider this war to be a turning point for Japan, and a key to understanding the reasons why Japan may have failed militarily and politically later on. After the war, acrimony was felt at every level of Japanese society and it became the consensus within Japan that their nation had been treated as the defeated power during the peace conference.  As time went on, this feeling, coupled with the sense of "arrogance" at becoming a Great Power  , grew and added to growing Japanese hostility towards the West, and fueled Japan's military and imperial ambitions. Only five years after the War, Japan de jure annexed Korea as its colonial empire. In 1931, 21 years later, Japan invaded Manchuria in the Mukden Incident . This culminated in the invasion of East, Southeast and South Asia in World War II in an attempt to create a great Japanese colonial empire, the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere . As a result, most Chinese historians consider the Russo-Japanese War as a key development of Japanese militarism .
Not only Russia and Japan were affected by the war. As a consequence, the British Admiralty enlarged its docks at Auckland , New Zealand ; Bombay , British India ; Fremantle , Australia ; British Hong Kong ;Simon's Town , Cape Colony ; Singapore and Sydney , Australia.  The 1904–1905 war confirmed the direction of the Admiralty's thinking in tactical terms while undermining its strategic grasp of a changing world.  For example, the Admiralty's tactical orthodoxy assumed that a naval battle would imitate the conditions of stationary combat, and that ships would engage in one long line sailing on parallel courses; but in reality, more flexible tactical thinking would be required in the next war. A firing ship and its target would maneuver independently at various ranges and at various speeds and in convergent or divergent courses. 

List of battles

Cause of IRN and IJN Warships Sunk During the War 1904-1905

Although submarines , torpedoes , torpedo boats , and steel battleships preceded the Russo-Japanese by many years, since 1866 in the case of the automotive self propelled torpedo for example, and its first successful use in 1877 during the Russo-Turkish War . The Russo-Japanese war was the first conflict to see the first massive deployment of all of those weapon systems . The war would witness the deployment of over a hundred of the newly invented torpedo boats and nearly the same number in torpedo boat destroyers (termed destroyers by the end of the war),  from both sides. The Imperial Russian Navy would become the first navy in history to possess an independent operational submarine fleet on 1 January 1905.  With this submarine fleet making its first combat patrol on 14 February 1905, and its first clash with enemy surface warships on 29 April 1905,  all this nearly a decade before World War I even began.
During the course of the war, the IRN and IJN would launch nearly 300 self propelled automotive torpedoes at one another.  Dozens of warships would be hit and damaged, but only 1 battleship, 2 armoured cruisers, and 2 destroyers would be permanently sunk (not salvaged). Another 80 plus warships would be destroyed by the traditional gun, mine, or other cause. The Russian battleship Oslyabya would become naval history's first modern battleship to be sunk by gunfire alone,  and Admiral Rozhestvensky 's flagship, the battleship Knyaz Suvorov would become the first modern battleship to be sunk by the new "torpedo" on the high seas.

Vessel type and cause of loss ]

  • Battleships lost to naval gunfire-3 (plus 1 Coastal Battleship) IRN
  • Battleships lost to land/shore batteries-4 IRN
  • Battleships lost to combination of gunfire & torpedoes-2 IRN
  • Battleships lost to strictly torpedoes-1 IRN
  • Battleships lost to mines-2 (plus 1 Coastal Battleship) IJN/1 IRN
  • Cruisers lost to naval gunfire-5 IRN
  • Cruisers lost to land/shore batteries-3 IRN
  • Cruisers lost to mines-1 IRN/4 IJN
  • Destroyers ( DDs , GBs , TBDs , TBs ) lost to naval gunfire-6 IRN/3 IJN
  • Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to shore batteries-3 IRN
  • Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to gunfire & torpedoes-1 IJN
  • Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to torpedoes-2 IRN
  • Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to mines-3 IRN/3 IJN
  • Auxiliary cruisers lost to naval gunfire-1 IRN
  • Auxiliary Cruisers lost to shore batteries-1 RN
  • Auxiliary Gunboats lost to mines-1 IJN
  • Minelayers lost to shore batteries-1 IRN
  • Minelayers lost to mines-1 IRN
  • Submarines -3 lost to scuttling & 1 lost by shipwreck IRN (Note: Only IRN submarines were operational during the war)
The above data includes vessels that were sunk and consequently salvaged (raised) and put back into service by either combatant. Data regarding surface vessels either shipwrecked or scuttled was excluded.

Imperial Russian Navy warships sunk, 1904-1905

From 1880 through the end of the war, Russia had prepared a systematic plan to build their navy into a major naval power, able to meet any modern adversary; which during this time period were primarily based in Europe.  By 1884 Russia lead the world in numbers of the newly invented torpedo boats and torpedo boat destroyers by possessing 115 such vessels. By 1904, the IRN was a first rate navy, but by the end of 1905, Russia would be reduced to a third rate naval power.

Tipo de Navio de Guerra, nome e data da perda 

  • Battleship Navarin 28 de maio de 1905
  • Battleship Sissoi Veliky 28 de maio de 1905
  • Battleship) Almirante Ushakov costeiras (28 maio de 1905
  • Battleship Petropavlovsk 13 de abril de 1904
  • Encouraçado Sevastopol 02 de janeiro de 1905
  • Battleship Oslyabya 27 mai 1905
  • Battleship Borodino 27 mai 1905
  • Battleship Imperator Alexander III 27 maio de 1905
  • Battleship Suvorov Knyaz 27 de maio de 1905
  • Cruiser Monomakh Vladimir 28 de maio de 1905
  • Cruiser Dmitri Donskoi 28 de maio de 1905
  • Cruzador Almirante Nakhimov 28 de maio de 1905
  • Cruiser Rurik 14 de agosto de 1904
  • Cruiser Svietlana 28 de maio de 1905
  • Gunboat Gremyashchi 18 de agosto de 1904
  • Gunboat Otvajni 02 janeiro de 1905
  • Torpedo Boat Destroyer (TBD) Steregushchi 19 de Março de 1904
  • TBD Strashni 13 de abril de 1904
  • TBD Stroini 13 novembro de 1904
  • Vnushitelni TBD 25 fev 1904
  • TBD Vuinoslivi 24 de agosto de 1904
  • TBD Buini 28 de maio de 1905
  • TBD Gromki 28 de maio de 1905
  • TBD Glestyashtchi 28 de maio de 1905
  • TBD Bezuprechni 28 de maio de 1905
  • Torpedo Boat (TB) Tantchikhe (# 201) 21 de agosto de 1904
  • TB Ussuri (# 204) 30 de junho de 1904
A lista acima não capturado, rendido, ou afundado navios de guerra que foram levantadas e colocar novamente em serviço por qualquer combatente.

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