Invasão em outros Teatros
O chinês Kuomintang também apoiou o vietnamita Vietnam Quoc Dan Dang em sua batalha contra o imperialismo francês e japonês.
Em Guangxi líderes militares chineses estavam a organizar os nacionalistas vietnamitas contra os japoneses. O VNQDD tinha sido ativa em Guangxi e alguns de seus membros tinham se juntou ao exército do KMT. Sob a égide das atividades KMT, uma ampla aliança de nacionalistas surgiram. Com Ho na vanguarda, o Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi (Independência do campeonato vietnamita, geralmente conhecido como o Viet Minh) foi formada e baseada na cidade de Chinghsi . O pró-VNQDD nacionalista Ho Ngoc Lam , um KMT oficial do Exército e ex-discípulo de Phan Boi Chau,, foi nomeado como o deputado do Pham Van Dong , que mais tarde seria o Primeiro-Ministro Ho. A frente foi posteriormente ampliado e rebatizado o Viet Nam Giai Phong Dong Minh (Vietnã Libertação Liga).
O Viet Nam Liga Revolucionária foi uma união de vários grupos nacionalistas vietnamitas, gerido pela VNQDD pro chinês. Chinês KMT Geral Zhang Fakui criado a liga à influência chinesa ainda na Indochina, contra os franceses e japoneses. Seu objetivo declarado era a unidade da China sob a Três Princípios do Povo , criado pelo fundador do KMT Dr. Sun e de oposição ao francês e vietnamita Imperialistas.   A Liga Revolucionária era controlada por Than Nguyen Hai, que nasceu na China e não poderia falar vietnamita. General Zhang astutamente bloqueados os comunistas do Vietnã, e Ho Chi Minh de entrar no campeonato, como principal objetivo Zhang foi a influência chinesa na Indochina. O KMT utilizou esses nacionalistas vietnamitas durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial contra as forças japonesas. Franklin D. Roosevelt , por meio de General Stilwell, em particular deixou claro que preferia que o francês não readquirir a Indochina Francesa (dia moderno Vietnã, Camboja e Laos), após a guerra tinha acabado. Roosevelt ofereceu Chiang Kai-shek controle de toda a Indochina. Foi dito que Chiang Kai-shek respondeu: "nenhuma circunstância! Under".
Depois da guerra, 200.000 tropas chinesas em Geral Lu Han foram enviadas por Chiang Kai-shek a Indochina Norte (norte do paralelo 16) para aceitar a rendição dos japoneses há forças de ocupação, e permaneceu na Indochina até 1946, quando o francês. Os chineses usaram o VNQDD , o ramo vietnamitas do chinês Kuomintang , para aumentar sua influência na Indochina e para colocar pressão sobre os seus adversários. Chiang Kai-shek, o francês ameaçou com a guerra em resposta à manobra do francês e Ho Chi Minh s forças "uns contra os outros, forçando-as a chegar a um acordo de paz. Em fevereiro de 1946, ele também forçou os franceses a entrega todas as suas concessões na China e renunciar a seus privilégios extraterritoriais em troca da retirada da Indochina chineses do norte e permitindo que as tropas francesas para reocupar a região. Na sequência do acordo de França a estas exigências, a retirada das tropas chinesas começaram em março de 1946.
Guerras Contemporânea sendo travada pela China
Os chineses não eram inteiramente a dedicar todos os seus recursos para os japoneses, porque eles estavam lutando várias outras guerras, ao mesmo tempo.
A União Soviética atacou a República Popular da China em 1937 durante a Guerra de Xinjiang (1937) . O muçulmano Geral Ma Hushan do Kuomintang 36 Divisão (Exército Revolucionário Nacional), resistiu à invasão soviética, que estava sendo conduzido por tropas russas comandado pelo general muçulmano Ma Zhanshan , anteriormente uma das Kaishek de suboordinates Chiang.
General Ma Hushan estava esperando algum tipo de ajuda de Nanjing, como ele trocou mensagens com Chiang sobre ataque soviético. Tanto a Segunda Guerra Sino-Japonesa ea guerra Xinjiang em erupção, ao mesmo tempo deixou Chiang e Ma Hushan por conta própria para enfrentar os inimigos Japão e União Soviética.
O governo da República da China, estava plenamente consciente da invasão soviética da província de Xinjiang, e as tropas soviéticas se deslocam Xinjiang e Gansu, mas foi forçado a mascarar estas manobras para o público como "propaganda japonesa" para evitar um incidente internacional e para o prosseguimento de suprimentos militares dos sovietes.
A pacificação do Kuomintang de Qinghai estava sendo travada pelos muçulmanos Kuomintang Geral Ma Bufang contra os rebeldes tibetanos, ea crise nas fronteiras com o Tibete explodiu várias que as tropas necessárias.
Desde o Pro Soviética governador Sheng Shicai controlada Xinjiang , que foi guarnecido com tropas soviéticas em Turfan , que beirava Gansu , o governo chinês teve de manter as tropas estacionadas no país também.
O muçulmano Geral Ma Buqing estava no controle virtual do Gansu corredor no momento. Ma Buqing já havia lutado contra os japoneses, mas desde que a ameaça soviética era grande, Chiang realizou alguns acordos sobre a posição da mãe. Em julho de 1942, Chiang Kai-shek instruído Ma Buqing para movimentar 30 mil de suas tropas para o pântano Tsaidam na Bacia Qaidam de Qinghai . Chiang chamado Ma Recuperação Comissário, a ameaçar Sheng Shicai 's no flanco sul de Xinjiang , que Tsaidam fronteira.
After Ma evacuated his positions in Gansu, Kuomintang troops from central China flooded the area, and inflitrated Soviet occupied Xinjiang, gradually reclaiming it and forcing Sheng Shicai to break with the Soviets. The Kuomintang ordered Ma Bufang several times to march his troops into Xinjiang to intimidate the pro Soviet Governor[Sheng Shicai. This helped provide protection for Chinese settling in Xinjiang.
The Ili Rebellion broke out in Xinjiang when the Kuomintang Chinese Muslim Officer Liu Bin-Di was killed while fighting Turkic Uyghur Rebels in November 1944. The Soviet Union supported the Turkic rebels against the Kuomintang, and Kuomintang forces were fighting back.
]Use of chemical and bacteriological weapons
Despite Article 23 of the Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) , article V of the Treaty in Relation to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare, [ article 171 of theTreaty of Versailles and a resolution adopted by the League of Nations on May 14, 1938, condemning the use of poison gas by the Empire of Japan , the Imperial Japanese Armyfrequently used chemical weapons during the war.
According to historians Yoshiaki Yoshimi and Seiya Matsuno, the chemical weapons were authorized by specific orders given byJapanese Emperor Hirohito himself, transmitted by the Imperial General Headquarters . For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the Battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938. They were also used during theinvasion of Changde . Those orders were transmitted either by Prince Kan'in Kotohito or General Hajime Sugiyama .
Bacteriological weapons provided by Shirō Ishii 's units were also profusely used. For example, in 1940, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force bombed Ningbo with fleas carrying the bubonic plague . During the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials the accused, such as Major General Kiyashi Kawashima, testified that, in 1941, some 40 members of Unit 731 air-dropped plague -contaminated fleas on Changde . These attacks caused epidemic plague outbreaks. [
[ ]Muslim Jihad against Japan
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Japan attempted to reach out to ethnic minorities to rally to their side, but only succeeded with certain Manchu , Mongol , Tibetan , and Uyghur elements. Their attempt to get the Muslim Hui people on their side failed, as many Chinese generals such as Bai Chongxi , Ma Hongbin , Ma Hongkui , and Ma Bufang were Hui and fought against the Japanese army. The Japanese attempted to approach Ma Bufang but were unsuccessful in making any agreement with him. Ma Bufang ended up supporting the anti Japanese Imam Hu Songshan , who prayed for the destruction of the Japanese. Ma became chairman (governor) of Qinghai in 1938 and commanded a group army. He was appointed because of his anti Japanese inclinations, and was such an obstruction to Japanese agents trying to contact the Tibetans that he was called an "adversary" by a Japanese agent.
Even before the war began, the Chinese Muslim General Ma Zhanshan was fighting and severely mauling the Japanese army in Manchuria. The Japanese officer Doihara Kenjiapproached him in an attempt to make him defect. He pretended to defect to the Japanese, then used the money they gave him to rebuild his army and fought them again, leading a guerilla campaign in Suiyuan . The Japanese themselves noted that Chiang Kaishek relied upon Muslim Generals like Ma Zhanshan and Bai Chongxi during the war.
The Japanese planned to invade Ningxia from Suiyuan in 1939 and create a Hui puppet state. The next year in 1940, the Japanese were defeated militarily by the Kuomintang Muslim General Ma Hongbin, which caused the plan to collapse. Ma Hongbin's Hui Muslim troops launched further attacks against Japan in the Battle of West Suiyuan . Muslim Generals Ma Hongkui and Ma Hongbin defended west Suiyuan, especially in the Battle of Wuyuan in 1940. Ma Hongbin commanded the 81st corps and had heavy casualties, but eventually repulsed the Japanese and defeated them.
The Japanese attempted to justify their invasion to the Muslim Chinese with promises of liberation and self-determination. Chinese Muslims rejected this, and Jihad (Islamic Holy War) was declared to be obligatory and sacred for all Chinese Muslims against Japan. The Yuehua , a Chinese Muslim publication, quoted the Quran and Hadith to justify submitting to Chiang Kai-Shek as the leader of China, and as justification for Jihad in the war against Japan. Xue Wenbo, a Muslim Hui Chengda School member wrote the: "Song of the Hui with an anti-Japanese determination". A Chinese Muslim Imam, Hu Songshan , was instrumental in his support of the war. When Japan invaded China in 1937, Hu Songshan ordered that the Chinese Flag be saluted during morning prayer, along with an exhortation to nationalism. He invoked Quranic authority to urge sacrifice against Japan. A prayer was written by him in Arabic and Chinese which prayed to Allah for the defeat of the Japanese and support of the Kuomintang Chinese government. Hu Songshan also ordered that all Imams in Ningxia preach Chinese nationalism. The Muslim General Ma Hongkui assisted him in this order, making nationalism required at every mosque. Hu Songshan led the Ikhwan , the Chinese Muslim Brotherhood, which became a Chinese nationalist, patriotic organization, stressing education and independence of the individual. Ma Hushan , a Chinese Muslim General of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) , spread anti-Japanese propaganda in Xinjiang and pledged his support to the Kuomintang. Westerners reported that the Tungans (Chinese Muslims) were anti-Japanese, and under their rule, areas were covered with "most of the stock anti-Japanese slogans from China proper", while Ma made "Resistance to Japanese Imperialism" part of his governing doctrine. The Chinese Islamic Association issued "A message to all Muslims in China from the Chinese Islamic Association for National Salvation" in Ramadan of 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
"We have to implement the teaching "the love of the fatherland is an article of faith" by the Prophet Muhammad and to inherit the Hui's glorious history in China. In addition, let us reinforce our unity and participate in the twice more difficult taks of supporting a defensive war and promoting religion.... We hope that ahongs [imams] and the elite will initiate a movement of prayer during Ramadan and implement group prayer to support our intimate feeling toward Islam. A sincere unity of Muslims should be developed to contribute power towards the expulsion of Japan."
During the war against Japan, the Imams supported Muslim resistance in battle, calling for Muslims to participate in the Jihad against Japan, and becoming a shaheed (islamic term for martyr). Later in the war, Ma Bufang sent cavalry divisions composed of Hui, Dongxiang Mongols, Salars , all of them Muslims , and Tibetans to fight Japan. Ma Hongkui seized the city of Dingyuanying in Suiyuan and arrested the Mongol prince Darijaya in 1938, because Doihara Kenji, who was a Japanese officer of the Kwangtung Army , visited the prince. Darijaya was exiled to Lanzhou until 1944. At the Battle of Wuyuan , the Hui Muslim cavalry led by Ma Hongbin and Ma Buqing defeated the Japanese troops. Ma Hongbin was also involved in the offensive against the Japanese at the Battle of West Suiyuan .
The Muslim Generals Ma Hongkui and Ma Bufang protected Lanzhou with their cavalry troops, and put up resistance, the Japanese never captured Lanzhou during the war. Ma Bufang sent the Muslim Brigade commander Major General Ma Buluan (马步銮), who led the 1st Regiment of the nationalist Reorganized 8th Cavalry Brigade, which was originally known as the nationalist 1st Cavalry Division and was later renamed as the 8th Cavalry Division during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The brigade was stationed in eastern Henan, and fought a number of battles against the Japanese invaders who grew to fear the nationalist cavalry unit, calling it “Ma's Islamic Division”.
The Qinghai Chinese, Salar, Chinese Muslim, Dongxiang, and Tibetan troops Ma Bufang sent fought to the death against the Imperial Japanese Army, or committed suicide refusing to be taken prisoner, instead, they committed suicide when cornered by the enemy. When they defeated the Japanese, the Muslim troops killed all except for a few prisoners to send back to Qinghai prove that they were victorious. In September 1940, when the Japanese made an offensive against the Muslim Qinghai troops, the Muslims ambushed them, forcing the Japanese to retreat. [
After World War II, the unit returned to Qinghai and was subsequently reorganized as the 1st Regiment of the Reorganized 8th Cavalry Brigade of the nationalist Reorganized 82nd Division.
Chiang Kai-Shek also suspected that the Tibetans were collaborating with the Japanese. Under orders from the Kuomintang government of Chiang Kai-Shek, Ma Bufang repaired the Yushu airport to prevent Tibetan separatists from seeking independence. Chiang also ordered Ma Bufang to put his Muslim soldiers on alert for entry into Tibet in 1942. Ma Bufang complied, and moved several thousand troops to the border with Tibet. [Chiang also threatened the Tibetans with bombing if they did not comply.
Ma Bufang was openly hostile towards the Tibetans and Buddhist Mongols (despite that he also had Muslim Mongols in his army). His Muslim troops launchedethnic cleansing against the Tibetans and Buddhist Mongols in northeast and eastern Qinghai during the war, and also destroyed Tibetan Buddhist Temples.
During the war, the American Asiatic Association published an entry in the text "Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40", concerning the problem of whether Chinese Muslims were Chinese or a separate "ethnic minority". It tackled the question of whether all muslims in China were united into one race. It came to the conclusion that the Japanese military spokesman was the only person who was propagating the false assertion that "Chinese Mohammedans" had "racial unity", which was disproven by the fact that muslims in China were composed of multitudes of different races, separate from each other as were the "Germans and English", such as the Mongol Hui of Hezhou, Salar Hui of Qinghai, Chan Tou Hui of Turkistan, and then Chinese muslims. The Japanese were trying to spread the false claim that Chinese muslims were one race, in order to propagate the claim that they should be separated from China into an "independent political organization".
Conclusion and aftermath
End of Pacific War and surrender of Japanese troops in China
On August 6, an American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay , dropped the first atomic bomb used in combat on Hiroshima . On August 9, the Soviet Union renounced its non-aggression pact with Japan and attacked the Japanese in Manchuria , fulfilling its Yalta Conference pledge to attack the Japanese within three months after the end of the war in Europe . The attack was made by three Soviet army groups.
In less than two weeks the Kwantung Army , which was the primary Japanese fighting force, consisting of over a million men but lacking in adequate armor, artillery, or air support had been destroyed by the Soviets. On August 9, a second atomic bomb was dropped by the United States on Nagasaki . Japanese Emperor Hirohito officially capitulated to the Allies on August 15, 1945, and the official surrender was signed aboard the battleship USS Missouri on September 2.
After the Allied victory in the Pacific, General Douglas MacArthur ordered all Japanese forces within China (excluding Manchuria ), Formosa and French Indochina north of 16° north latitude to surrender to Chiang Kai-shek , and the Japanese troops in China formally surrendered on September 9, 1945.
]Post war struggle and resumption of civil war
In 1945 China emerged from the war nominally a great military power but economically weak and on the verge of all-out civil war. The economy was sapped by the military demands of a long costly war and internal strife, by spiraling inflation , and by corruption in theNationalist government that included profiteering , speculation and hoarding .
Furthermore, as part of the Yalta Conference , allowing a Soviet sphere of influence in Manchuria , the Soviets dismantled and removed more than half of the industrial equipment left there by the Japanese before handing over Manchuria to China. Large swathes of the prime farming areas had been ravaged by the fighting and there was starvation in the wake of the war. Many towns and cities were destroyed, and millions were rendered homeless by floods.
The problems of rehabilitation and reconstruction from the ravages of a protracted war were staggering, and the war left the Nationalists severely weakened, and their policies left them unpopular. Meanwhile, the war strengthened the Communists both in popularity and as a viable fighting force. At Yan'an and elsewhere in the liberated areas, Mao Zedong was able to adapt Marxism–Leninism to Chinese conditions. He taught party cadres to lead the masses by living and working with them, eating their food, and thinking their thoughts.
The Chinese Red Army fostered an image of conducting guerrilla warfare in defense of the people. Communist troops adapted to changing wartime conditions and became a seasoned fighting force. With skillful organizational and propaganda , the Communists increased party membership from 100,000 in 1937 to 1.2 million by 1945.
Mao also began to execute his plan to establish a new China by rapidly moving his forces from Yan'an and elsewhere to Manchuria. This opportunity was available to the Communists because although Nationalist representatives were not invited to Yalta, they had been consulted and had agreed to the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in the belief that the Soviet Union would deal only with the Nationalist government after the war.
However, the Soviet occupation of Manchuria was long enough to allow the Communist forces to move in en masse and arm themselves with the military hardware surrendered by the Japanese army, quickly establish control in the countryside and move into position to encircle the Nationalist government army in major cities of northeast China. The Chinese Civil War broke out between the Nationalists and Communists following that, which concluded with the Communist victory in mainland China and the retreat of the Nationalists to Taiwan in 1949.
Peace treaty and Taiwan
Taiwan and the Penghu islands were put under the administrative control of the Republic of China (ROC) government in 1945 by theUnited Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration . The ROC proclaimed Taiwan Retrocession Day on October 25, 1945. However, due to the unresolvedChinese Civil War , neither the newly established People's Republic of China (PRC) in mainland China nor the Nationalist ROC that retreated to Taiwan was invited to sign the Treaty of San Francisco , as neither had shown full and complete legal capacity to enter into an international legally binding agreement. Since China was not present, the Japanese only formally renounced the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan and Penghu islands without specifying to which country Japan relinquished the sovereignty, and the treaty was signed in 1951 and came into force in 1952.
In 1952, the Treaty of Taipei was signed separately between the ROC and Japan that basically followed the same guideline of the Treaty of San Francisco, not specifying which country has sovereignty over Taiwan. However, Article 10 of the treaty states that the Taiwanese people and the juridicial person should be the people and the juridicial person of the ROC. [ 85 ] Both the PRC and ROC governments base their claims to Taiwan on the Japanese Instrument of Surrender which specifically accepted the Potsdam Declaration which refers to the Cairo Declaration . Disputes over the precise de jure sovereign of Taiwan persist to the present. On a de facto basis, sovereignty over Taiwan has been and continues to be exercised by the ROC. Japan's position has been to avoid commenting on Taiwan's status, maintaining that Japan renounced all claims to sovereignty over its former colonial possessions after World War II, including Taiwan.
The question as to which political group directed the Chinese war effort and exerted most of the effort to resist the Japanese remains a controversial issue.
In the Chinese People's War of Resistance Against Japan Memorial near the Marco Polo Bridge and in mainland Chinese textbooks, the People's Republic of China (PRC) claims that the Nationalists mostly avoided fighting the Japanese to preserve their strength for a final showdown with the Communist Party of China (CCP or CPC), while the Communists were the main military force in the Chinese resistance efforts. Recently, however, with a change in the political climate, the CCP has admitted that certain Nationalist generals made important contributions in resisting the Japanese. The official history in mainland China now states that the KMT fought a bloody, yet indecisive, frontal war against Japan, while the CCP engaged the Japanese forces in far greater numbers behind enemy lines. For the sake of Chinese reunification and appeasing the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan , the PRC has begun to "acknowledge" the Nationalists and the Communists as "equal" contributors, because the victory over Japan belonged to the Chinese people , rather than to any political party.
Other scholars document quite a different view. Such studies find evidence that the Communists actually played a minuscule role in the war against the Japanese compared to the Nationalists, and preserved their strength for a final showdown with the Kuomintang (KMT). This view point gives the KMT credit for the brunt of the fighting, which is confirmed by Communists leader Zhou Enlai 's secret report to Joseph Stalin in January 1940. This report stated that out of more than one million Chinese soldiers killed or wounded since the war began in 1937, only 40,000 were from the Communists Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army . In other words, by the CCP's own account, the Communists had suffered a mere three percent of total casualties half way into the war.
This is because the Communists were not the main participants in any of the 22 major battles between China and Japan (involving more than 100,000 troops on both sides) and usually avoided open warfare (theHundred Regiments Offensive and the Battle of Pingxingguan are notable exceptions), preferring to fight in small squads to harass the Japanese supply lines. In comparison, right from the beginning of the war the Nationalists committed their best troops (including the 36th, 87th, 88th divisions, the crack divisions of Chiang's Central Army) to defend Shanghai from the Japanese, and continue to deploy most of their forces to fight the Japanese even as the Communists changed their strategy to engage mainly in a political offensive against the Japanese and declared that the CCP should "save and preserve our strength and wait for favorable timing" by the end of 1941. The Japanese considered the KMT rather than the Communists as their main enemy and bombed the Nationalist wartime capital of Chongqing to the point that it was the most heavily bombed city in the world to date.
To this day the war is a major point of contention between China and Japan. The war remains a major roadblock for Sino-Japanese relations , and many people, particularly in China, harbour grudges over the war and related issues.
Issues regarding the current historical outlook on the war exist. For example, the Japanese government has been accused of historical revisionism by allowing the approval of school textbooks omitting or glossing over Japan's militant past. In response to criticism of Japanese textbook revisionism, the PRC government has been accused of using the war to stir up already growing anti-Japanese sentiments in order to spurnationalistic feelings .
Chinese Communists Party Declarations
On 30 September 1931, two weeks after the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) invaded Manchuria , the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued this manifesto:
|"||Only Chinese Communist Party, who is the absolute leader of all the workers, peasants, students of China, to attack the KMT.This incident, in which Japan had invaded Manchuria, would not slow down the Chinese Communist Party's attack towards the KMT regime. On the contrary, Chinese Communist Party would double it's effort and work harder to overthrow this KMT regime, which is the tool of foreign imperialism in China.||"|
In 1972, when the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Japan established formal diplomatic relationship, Mao Zedong met the then Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka . When Tanaka personally apologized to Mao for invading China, Mao responded:
|"||(You) don't have to say sorry, your country had made a great contribution to China. Por quê? Because if Imperial Japan did not start the war, how could we communists become mighty and powerful? How could we overthrow KMT? How could we defeat Chiang Kai-shek? No, we are grateful and do not want your war reparations! (Translated from Tanaka Kakuei Biography, original in Japanese).||"|
Aftermath in Taiwan
While the People's Republic of China (PRC) government has been accused of greatly exaggerating the Communist Party of China (CCP or CPC)'s role in fighting the Japanese in mainland China , the aftermath of the war is more complicated in Taiwan .
Traditionally, the Republic of China government has held celebrations marking the Victory Day on September 9 (now known as Armed Forces Day ) and Taiwan's Retrocession Day on October 25. However, with the power transfer from Kuomintang (KMT) to the pro- Taiwan independence Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) in 2000 and the rise of desinicization , events commemorating the war have become less commonplace. Many supporters of Taiwanese independence see no relevance in preserving the memory of the war of resistance that happened primarily on mainland China . Some 120,000 Taiwanese evenvolunteered for or were drafted into the Imperial Japanese Army . [ citation needed ]
On the other hand, many KMT supporters, particularly veterans who retreated with the government in 1949, still have an emotional interest in the war. For example, in celebrating the 60th anniversary of the end of war in 2005, the cultural bureau of KMT stronghold Taipei held a series of talks in the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall regarding the war and post-war developments, while the KMT held its own exhibit in the KMT headquarters. Since the KMT won the presidential election in 2008, the ROC government resumed commemorating the war.